What is Economics? Waa maxay dhaqaale? (Afsoomaali)

WAA MAXAY DHAQAALE? WHAT IS ECONOMICS?

Maqaal dhaqaale (Economic Article)
Mr Abdullahi Bashir
Copy right 2023, Abdullahibashir.com
All rights reserved

Hordhac (Introduction):

D

higahaan kooban ee aan kaga jawaabayno su’aasha dhahaysa ‘waa maxay dhaqaale?” oo runtii ah su'aal aad u balaadhan oo run ahaantii aan lagu soo koobi Karin qormo yar oo midaan oo kale ah; hadana waxaan isku dayi doonaa in aan iftiimin kooban ka bixino. Inaga oo ka jawaabayna su’aasha hadana waxaan marwalba ku dadaalaynaa in aan erayada luuqada English ah ama terminologyga ah u afqaadno/turjumno Afsoomaali maadaama dad badan oo aan dhaqaalaha baranin ay bogaan nagala socdaan. Sida aynu la wada socono dhaqaaluhu waa lafdhabarta nolosha aadanaha, taas oo hadii la hagaajiyo ah meel laga sixi karo daganaan la’aanta bulshada dhinac walba, sida la wariyo dhibaatooyinka bulshooyinka caalamka la soo darsa intooda ugu badani waa dhibaato ay sababtay dhaqaale humo sidaas daraadeed dhibka iyo qaxarka iyo dhaqaale xumada xiriir toos ah ayaa ka dhexeeya. Halka hodantinimada bulsooyinka ay ku xirantahay in la wanaajiyo nidaamkooda dhaqaale.

Image credit: Michelle-Henderson-SoT4-mZhyhE-Unsplash,2023
Markii laga soo tago faylasuufyadii ama buuniyadii giriiga hore ee kala dambeeyay Plato iyo Aristotle oo aas’aaskii  aragtiyadii hore ee dhaqaalaha (Ancient economic thought) waxku soo biiriyay (contribution) lagu tilmaamo; hadana aragtiyada wax ku oolka ah ee dhaqaalaha in uu noqdo maado(discipline) cimiyeed oo si gaar ah loo darso, waxaa la rumaysanyahay in la horumariyay abbaare  sanadkii 1776 taariikhd miilaadiga, markii faylasuufkii scottish-ka ahaa Adam  Smith, oo lagu naanayso aabaha dhaqaalaha iyo siyaasada (Father of economics and political economy) uu daabacay buug uu cinwaankiisu yahay ( an inquiry and causes of the wealth of nations) wuxuu jawaab u raadinayaa siyaabaha  hantida umadaha loo sameeyo, buuggaan oo cusboonaysiin(edition) badan lagu sameeyay waxaa ka soo burqaday aragtiyo dhaqaale oo kala dambeeyay oo ilaa iyo maanta la darso caalamka oo dhan, buugaan mawduuca ugu horeeya wuxuu kaga hadlayaa aragtida dhahaysa waa in shaqaalaha shirkadu qaybiso(Divission of labor) si wax soosaarku u fududaado, in shaqaalaha loo sameeyo takhasusaad(specialization). Aragtiyada kale ee buuga ku xusan waxaa ka mid ah maadaama dadku kala xirfad iyo hibo duwanyihiin in uu wadanku ahmiyad gaar ah siiyo waxyaabaha uu ku fiicanyahay (comparative advantage) marka la barbar dhigo cidkale ama in xoogga ay dawladu saarto badeecadaha iyo adeegyada kharashaadka ugu yar ay ku soo saari karto marka loo fiiriyo wadamada kale ee ay la ganacsanayso, in dawladu suuqa ku ilaaliso gacan aan muuqan (invisible hand) si loo yareeyo fashil ku yimaada suuqa.

1. WAA MAXAY ECONOMICS? WHAT IS ECONOMICS?

Ugu horrayn si aynu uga jawaabno, waa maxay dhaqaale?, goormaa la soo billaabay ? Eraygu xagee buu ka soo jeedaa? Waa ayo dadka dadaalka ugu badan ku bixiyay? Sideebuu dhaqaaluhu u shaqeeyaa? su’aalahan ayaynu jawaab u raadidoonaa.

EraygaEconomics’ waxa uu ka soo jeedaa laba eray oo Giriig(Greek) ah Eco oo micneheedu yahay Guri(House) iyo nomos oo macneheedu yahay Maamulid (Manage), “Economics” taas oo macneheedu yahay maamulka qoyska (Household management). 

Si aan qeexitaan kooban uga bixino dhaqaalaha waxaan soo qaadanaynaa sadex(3) dhaqaaleyahan oo waawayn: Adam Smith, Lionel Robbins, Prof. Alfred Marshall.

  • Adam Smith (1723-1790): Wuxuu dhaqaalaha ku qeexay ‘waa cilmi daraaseeya barashada Hantida qaranka”-Economics is a science of wealth of nation. Waa qeexitaanka dhaqaalaha ee badanaaba loo soo qaato marka dhaqaalaha dhanka hantida laga eegayo.
  • Prof. Alfred Marshall (1842-1924): wuxuu ku qeexay “dhaqaalahu waa cilmi daraaseeya barashada daryeelka dadka”- “Economics is a science of Human welfare”. Dhaqaalayahanadu marka ay daryeelka bulshada ku qeexayaan dhaqaalaha ayay adeegsadaan.
  • Lionel Robbins (1898-1984): Dhaqaaluhu waa barashada sida uu dadku u kala doorto (choice) badeecadaha iyo adeegyada (goods and service) markii ay timaado xaalad yaraansho (scarcity).

Dhaqaaluhu waa cilmi daraaseeya habdhaqanka aadamaha sida xiriirka ka dhexeeya baahiyaha aas’aasiga ah (ends) iyo yaraanshaha khayraadk (scarcity means) kuwaas oo leh mudnaan kala duwan- “economics is a science which studies human behiviour as a relationship between ends and scarcity means which have alternative uses”. Qeexitaankan Robbins waa midka ugu caansan dhaqaalaha.

Dhaqaalahu (Economics) waa mid ka mid ah cilmiyada bulshada kaas oo lagu daraaseeyo sida ay bulshadu ula tacaamusho dhaqdhaqaaqyadooda dhaqaale markii ay timaado in ay wax soo iibsadaan (Buy) ama ay iska iibinayaan(sell) macaamilkaasina wuxuu ka dhaca suuqa (market). Suuqu waa meesha ay ku kulmaan labada wax kala iibsanaysa. waxaa jirta aragti ama nadariyad gundhig u ah cilmiga dhaqaalaha, lana aaminsanyahay in cilmigani kasoo askumay, aragtidaas waxaa loo yaqaan aragtida yaraanshaha ( scarcity theory). Aragtidaan waxay iftiiminaysaa in baahida dadku aysan dhamaad lahayn (Human wants/needs are unlimited), halka khayraadkuna uu yahay mid xadidan (limited resources).

Sidaas daraadeed waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in uu qofku u baahanyahay in uu yeesho kala door bidid (alternative). Dadka bartay cilmigaan dhaqaalaha waxay baaris ku sameeyaan qaababka bulshadu u qoondayso khayraadka yar ee ay haystaan (the way society allocate their scarcity resources) si ay isu deeqsiiyaan iyada oo uusan imaanin yaraansho iyo israaf (waste); isla markaana la tixgalinayo sida ay ukala mudanyihiin baahiyahaas ma rabitaanbaa (wants) sida inaad Baabuur qurxoon ku socoto mise waa baahi (needs) la’aanteed aysan noloshu macquul ahayn, sida inaad dhar xirato. si loo xaqiijiyo yoolkaas dawladuhu waxay ku dadaalaan:

  • kor u qaadida heerka nololeed ee bulshada wakhti cayiman (to improve in Humans’ standard of living overtime)
  • In ay Dawladu xaqiijiso yoolasha hormarka waara (Sustainable development goals).
  •  In ay dawladu hoos u dhigto kororka heerka shaqo la’aanta bushada gaar ahaan dhalinyarada (Unemployment).
  •  In la helo wadan xasilloon oo ammaan ahaan daggan (Secure and Stability country)
  • In si cadaalad ah dhaqaalaha iyo khayraadka wadanka loo gaadhsiiyo bulshada (Distribution of income).
  • In bulshada loo diyaariyo deegaan baya’ caafimaad qabto leh oo aan lahayn dikhowga hawada, ciida iyo biyaha toona( desent environment).
  • In dawladu ay abuurto jawi tartan oo caafimaad qaba ganacsataduna u tartamaan; tartan caafimaad qaba si uusan suuq u fashilmin (Market failure).

Hadaba si uu fahamku inoogu soo dhawaado waxaynu dhaqaalaha u qaaybinaynaa labo qaybood (two parts) dhaqaalaha hoose(Microeconomics) iyo dhaqaalaha guud(Macroeconomics):

  • Qaybta 1aad markii aan dhaqaalaha u aqoonsanayno dhaqaalah hoose (microeconomics) iyo 
  • Qaybta 2aad oo ah markii aan doonayno in aan ogaano guud ahaan dhaqaalaha wadanka (macroeconomics). 

Hadaba Markii aan suuqa ka eegayno hal badeeco ama hal adeeg dhaqdhaqaaqyada ay macaamiishu ka sameeyaan waxaan u aqoonsanaynaa dhaqaalaha hoose (microeconomics) Tusaale: suuqa lowska ee magaalada Burtinle, suuqa kaluunka ee magaalada Eyl. hadii aad ila fahantay suuqan waxaan ka eegaynaa kaliya hal badeeco oo ah lowska ee kama eegayayo dhamaan badeecadaha wadanka oo dhan sida suuqa khudrada noocyadeeda kala duwan, suuqa baabuurata iwm. 

Halka dhaqaalaha guud (Macroeconomics) uu yahay saamaynta guud ahaan dadka wadanku ay ku leeyihiin dhaqaalaha Tusaale: waxsoosaarka guud ee wadanka (Total output of a nation/GDP), guud ahaa heerka sicirku marayo(the average price level of a nation), heerka shaqo la’aanta wadanka(the level of employment/unemployment in the nation).

Microeconomics: waa barashada habdhaqanka qofka ee dhaqaalaha, oo ay ka mid yihiin hababka uu qofku badeecada ama adeega suuqa u iibsado ama isaga iibiyo xilli cayiman (individual behavior), Tusaale:

  • Suuq Maydiga ee magaalada Xaafuun ( the Market for frankincese in Hafun),
  • Suuqa Jalaatada ee magaalada Garowe ( The market for Ice-cream in Garowe),
  • Suuqa Tigidhada garoonka ciyaaraha ee magaalada Galkacayo ( the market for stadium tickets in Galkaio)
  • Suuqa yaanyada Qardho (Market for Tomatoes in Qardo).

Macroeconomics: waa barashada guud ahaan saamaynta dad waynaha wadanku ay ku leeyihiin dhaq dhaqaaqa dhaqaalaha wadanka (all economic activity within that nation). Tusaale: heerka shaqaqo la’aant soomaaliya, Heerka sicir bararka kenya, Koboca dhaqaalaha Maraykanka, dabaqada u dhaxaysa dadka taajiriinta ah iyo dadka fakhriga ah ee wadanka Hindiya.waxaa jira shan qodob oo waawayn oo sigaar ah u khuseeya dhaqaalaha guud (macroeconomics) ee wadanka is la markaasna loo baahanyahay dawlad walba inay xaqiijiso:

  1. In koboc dhaqaale oo raandhiis/waarid leh la gaaro ( stable and sustainable economic growth),
  2. In waxsoo saarka guud ee wadanka kor loo qaado(Total Output of the nation/GDP),
  3. In sicirka(price) wadanka laga dhigo mid daggan ( the average price level of a nation),
  4.  In la yareeyo heerka shaqo la’aanta wadanka (to reduce the level of unemployment in the country),
  5.  In khayraadka wadanka si cadaalad ah loogu qaybiyo dadka (fair distribution of income in the Nation).

2. SIDEE BUU DHAQAALUHU U SHAQEEYAA? HOW DOES THE ECONOMY WORK?

Waxaan adeegsanaynaa hab lagu magacaabo "qulqulka giraanta dhaqaalaha guud ” (Circular follow model of macroeconomics), Hadii aan u soo gudbo su’aashii aan horay idinku waydiiyay bogayga facebookga ee ahayd sidee buu dhaqaaluhu u shaqeeyaa? How does the economy work? Waxaan is leeyahay waxaa si fiican u sharraxa qaabka (Model) dhaqaalaha lagu magacaabo giraanta uu dakhliga wadanku ku wareego (Circular follow model of macroeconomics), taas oo aan is iri waa qaabka ugu fudud ee qofka aan dhaqaalaha baranin lagu fahamsiin karo. Habkani wuxuu si sawir ahaan ah inoo tusayaa sida ay lacagtu isaga gudubto dhamaan wakiilada ku lugta leh waxsoosaarka iyo isticmaalka badeecadaha iyo adeegyada guud ahaan wadanka oo dhan waana wareeg ama (circle) joogto ah oo aan dhamaad lahayn. Hadaba sida u shaqeeyo dhaqaaluhu halkaan hoose ayaynu ku sharrixi doonaa.

Sida sawirka ka muuqata waxaa jira shan (5) waaxood oo uu mid walba door muhiim ah ku leeyahay wareega dakhliga wadanka taas oo mid ba midka kale uu ku soo noqnoqdo marar kala duwan. Afarta xoog waxay kala yihiin:

1. Qoysaska(Households),

2. Suuqa badeecadaha iyo adeegyada (Product and service market)

2.1 Waxda dibada (foreign sector),

3. Shirkadaha wax soosaarka (Firms),

4. Suuqa khayraadka (Resource market),

5. Waxda Dawlada( Government sector),

5.1 Bangiyada (Bank sector)’

1) Suuqa badeecadaha iyo adeegyada (Product and services market): suuqaan waxaa ku lug leh sadex waaxood Qoysaska (Households) ah bulshada, Shirkadaha(firms) waxsoosaarka iyo ganacsiga caalamiga ah (international trade).

  • Qoysasku (Households): waxay bixiyaan lacag(Money) badalkeedana waxay helaan badeecado iyo adeegyo( goods and services);
  •  Shirkadaha(Firms): shirkaduhu wax soosaarkooda (Output) waxay ku badashaan lacag ama dakhli( revenue) macaamilkaas labadooda dhex marayna wuxuu ka dhacaa suuqa badeecadaha iyo adeegyada oo afka qalaad lagu yiraahdo (Product market).
  • Ganacsiga caalamiga ah (Foreign sector) suuqaani waa suuqa dibada alaabaha la dhoofinayo iyo kuwa la soo dajinayo. Hadaba suuqa badeecadaha iyo adeegyadu (product market) kaliya kama shaqeeyo gudaha wadanka oo kaliya (Domistic) badeecadaha qaybo ka mid ah waxaa loo dhoofiyaa dibada(export) badalkeedana waxaa la soo dajiyaa( import) badeecado iyo adeegyo aan laga helin wadanka ama dibada ku fiican, macaamilkaas waxaa looyaqaanaa ganacsiga caalamiga ah (international trade) waxaana fuliya waaxda ganacsiga dibada (Foreingn trade sector). Sidaas si la mid ah suuqa shaqaaluhuna dalka iyo dibadaba wuu isaga gudba(international labor mobility).

2) Suuqa ka faaiidaysiga khayraadka (Resource market): suuqaan waxaa ku lug leh sadex waaxood Qoysaska (Households), Shirkadaha(firms) iyo waaxda Bangiyada (Bank sector).

  • Qoysaska(Households): Qoysasku waxay diyaariyaan dhamaan cunsurkii wax lagu soo saari lahaa(factor of production) waxaa ka mid ah dhulalkii, guryihii, shaqaalihii, iyo tignoolajiyadii wax lagu soo saari lahaa. Waxayna badalkeeda ka helaan shirkadaha dakhli(Income): mushahaar (salary/wage), Kiro(Rent), fa’iido/dulsar(interest).
  •  Shirkadaha (Firms): shirkaduhu waxay ka faa’iidaystaan xooga wax soo saar (factor of production) ee dadka iyaga oo adeegsanaya wixii caqli iyo tignoolajiyad ah oo ah heli karaan si ay faa’iido(Profit) uga dhaliyaan waxayna badalkeeda xuquuq ahaan uga siiyaan Lacag(Money).
  • Waaxda Bangiyada (Banksector): waaxdaani waxay qaabilsantahay maalgashiga (Investment) iyo Kaydinta (savings) lacagaha dadwaynaha iyo dawladaba. Waxaana saamayn toos ah ku leh Bangiga dhexe ee Dawlada (Centeral Bank) waxaana ka sii hoos shaqeeya bangiyada ganacsiga( Commercial Banks). Waa waaxda ugu saamaynta badan marka dhaqaalaha guud ahaan laga hadlayo oo hadii aan si fiican looga taxadarin ama bangiga dhexe uusan siyaasado dhaqaale oo cilmiyaysan wadanka ku dhaqin waxaa timaada sixir barar iyo daganaansho la’aan ku timaada nidaam ka maaliyadeed ee wadanka.
  • Dawlada (Government sector): Dawladu waa laf dhabarka nidaam kaan dhaqaale ee isku xiran hadii aysan dawladu aad u ilaalinina waxaa khalkhal ku imaanaya ama khaldamaya qaabka wanaagsan ee uu dhaqaaluhu u shaqeeyo oo waxaa imaanaysa in lagu xad gudbo habsami u socodka dhaqaalaha kadibna waxay gayaysiinaysaa wadanka dhaqaalo bur-bur fowdo. Dawladu 
  • Qoysaska (Households) waxay u fulisaa adeeg bulsho(Public goods and services) waxayna ka qaadaa canshuur(taxes). Sidaas si lamid ah Shirkadaha (Firms) waxay ka qaadaa canshuur (taxes) waxayna u fulisa adeegyo guud(public goods) sida in ay hagaajiso kaabayaasha dhaqaalaha wadanka, adeegyada waxbarashada, caafimaadka, korontada biyaha, ammaanka, in ay ganacsiyada qaar oo ay kabto (subsidy). Sawirka hoose ka dheeho sida ay dhamaan qaybaha aan kor ku soo xusay u wada shaqeeyaan. Sawirka waxaa la yiraahdaa habka qulqulka giraanta dhaqaalaha guud ” (Circular follow model of macroeconomics):
Sawirka: waxaa la yiraahdaa habka qulqulka giraanta dhaqaalaha guud ” (Circular follow model of macroeconomics),2023

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