WHAT ARE THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ECONOMICS?

 WAA MAXAY AFKAARTA GUDHIGGA U AH DHAQAALAHA?

Maqaal dhaqaale (Economic Article)

Mr Abdullahi Bashir

Copy right 2023, Abdullahibashir.com

All rights reserved

 

HORDHAC (INTRODUCTION):

Cilmi walba wuxuu leeyahay aragti gundhig u ah markii ay noqoto barashadiisa iyo adeegsigiisa. Hadaba cilmiga dhaqaaluhu wuxuu leeyahay aragtiyo nude u ah dhamaan barashadiisa iyo taxliilintiisaba. Ha ahaato inaan barano dhaqaale hoose (Microeconomics) ama Dhaqaale wayn (Macroeconomics), wuxuu leeyahay afkaar aas’aas u ah oo xal u raadinteeda ay ku fooganyihiin dhamaan dhinacyada dhaqaalaha yar iyo waynba. Cilmiga Dhaqaaluhu waxuu ka mid yahay maadooyinka Cilmiga ah (science) sida cilmiyada kale, wuxuu la tacaamulaa dhibaatada aas’aasiga ah ee dabiiciga ah (fundamental problem of nature) ee bulshada haysata si uu u xaliyo.


Hadii aan dhawr tusaale oo kooban u soo qaadano su’aalaha ay cilmiyada kala duwani ay marwalba jawaata u raadiyaan ugu horayn waxaa ka bilaabaynaa cilmiga barashada maadada (physics) tusaale: Ingineerada dayax gacmeedka (satellite engineering); waxaa jirta su’aal ay jawaab u raadiyaan oo ah xoogaga Cuf-isjiidadka (gravitational forces), Khubaradaani waxay raadiyaan marwalba sidii ay nololi suurta gal uga noqon lahayd hawada sare, xal waarana loogu heli lahaa cuf-ijiidadka.


Cilmiga barashada noolaha (Biology) wuxuu daahqaaday in dhamaan noolayaashu ay wadaagaan dabeecado guud oo noole kasta laga helayo; waxaa ka mid ah noole kasta in uu leeyahay nidaam u gaar ah (order), dareen (response), taran(reproduction), laqabsi(adaption), koriin iyo hormar(growth and development), farsamaynta tamarta i.w.m.


Cilmiga barashada kiimikada (Chemistry) waxaa lagu bartaa isku dheelitirka aashitada(acid and base), falcelinta ogsajiinnada(oxidation reactions), isku xidhnaanta kiimikada(chemical bonding), curiyayaasha kala duwan falgalkooda I.W.M, kuwaa oo lagu soo koobay hal jaantus(Periodic table). 


Sidaas daraadeed xudunta tusaalayaashaan kor ku xusan waxaa weeye waxaa jirta su’aalo aas’aasi ah oo haysta cilmiyadaan aan kor ku xusnay(physics,Biology and chemistery) isla markaasna marwalba ay dadaal ku bixiyaan sidii loo xalin lahaa (Fundamental problem of nature).



WHAT ARE THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ECONOMICS

Sawirka: waxaa isku soo duba riday qoraaga, 2023

Cilmiga Dhaqaaluhuna (Economics) sida maadooyinka cilmiga sayniska ah; oo kale waxaa haysta dhibaatooyin aaas’aasi ah oo uu mar walba jawaab u raadiyo midaas oo ah yaraansho/qaraac (scarcity).

Marwalba oo aan baranayno dhaqaalaha ha ahaado mid hoose ama dhaqaale wayn, waxaa jirta afkaar xudun/gundig u ah dhaqaalaha taas oo uu jawaab u raadiyo (Fundamental concepts of Economics). Waxaan soo qaadanaynaa 4 kamid ah aragtiyadaas.


1) Scarcity(qarraac/yaraansho/xadidan): dhaqaaluhu wuxuu ku saabsan yahay qoondaynta kheyraadka yar (Allocation of scarcity resourcesee ay bulshadu doonayso (wants) iyo waxyaabaha ayna ka maarmaynin (needs).


2) Resources (khayraad): dhaqaaluhu wuxuu diirada saaraa qoondaynta qayraadka (Allocation of Resources) marka loo eegayo waxyaabaha ay bulshadu rabto (wants) iyo waxyaabaha aysan ka maarmin(needs).

3) Tradeoffs (Mudnaansiin): shaksiyaadka iyo guud ahaan bulshada ayaa si joogto ah badeecadaha iyo adeegyada u kala doorta (Choices) taas oo ay markaas wajahaan dhibaatada kala mudnaansiinta (tradeoffs) badeecadaha ama adeegyada markaas ay kala door bidayaan (alternatives) si ay u iibsadaan.

4) Opportunity cost (kansho hurid): ma jiro wax aan qiimolahayn (nothing is free), Fursada/kanshaha aadan ka faaiidaysanin waa fursad aad lumisay (The opportunity cost is the opportunity lost). Go’aan walba oo dhaqaale wuxuu u baahanyahay si aad fursad uga faa’iidaysatid in aad mid kale ka tanaasushid.

1.     SCARCITY (QARRAAC/YARAANSHO)

scarcity

Sawirka: wuxuu ina tusinayaa yaraanshaha ka jira biyaha


What is a scarcity in Economics? Waa maxay qarraaca/yaraanshaha dhaqaaluhu?

Bal iswaafaji? rabitaan iyo baahi aan xadidnayn (Unlimited wants and needs) &  khayraad xadidan(limited resources).

Sababta yaraanshu(scarcity) waa in aan samaynaa go’aamo kala duwan oo dhaqaale si aan u qoondaynno khayraadka si sax ah; sidaas daraadeed waa in aan wax ka mid ah rabitaankeena(wants) ka tanaasulnaa si aan u gaadhno kuwo kale.

Yaraantu (scarcity) waxay timaadaa markii shaygu uu tiro ahaan u yar yahay iyada oo loo baahanyahay (scarcity arises when something is both limited in quantity yet desire).

Yaraantu (scarcity) waa mid ka mid ah aragtiyda xudunta u ah dhaqaalaha (scarcity is one of the key concepts of economics). Yaraantu waxay timaadaa markii baahida (demand) badeecadaha iyo adeegyadu uu ka badanyahay hilitaankooda (availibility).

Sidaas daraadeed yaraantoodu waxay xadidaysaa dooroshada (choices) ay samayn lahaayeen macaamiishu taas oo saamayn taban (negative) ku yeelankarta guud ahaan dhaqaalaha.

Hadaba waa maxay dhibaatooyinka aa’aasiga ah ee dabiiciga ah ee uu cilmiga dhaqaaluhu marwalba isku dayo in uu jawaab u raadiyo? 

Hadii aan kuu sii hogo tusaaleeyo “khayraadka dabiiciga ah ee dhulku waa mid kooban oo aysan dunidu kawada sinayn’’ halkaas marka waxaa kaaga muuqda dhibaato aas’aasi ah oo ah yaraansho in khayraad ka dunidu uu san ahayn mid loo wada siman yahay (problem of scarcity resources). wadamada qaarbaa leh khayraad dabiici ah oo badan qaarna waxay leeyihiin mid yar.

Waa aragti (scarcity) biyo kama dhibcaan ah in aan ogaano sida aynu u xallin lahayn baahiyaha macaamiisheenna (consumer demand) iyo in aan ogaano sida ashkhaasta (individuals) iyo ganacsiyaduba (business) go’aan uga gaadhaan wixii ay isticmaalayaan (consumption), waxay soo saarayaan (production) iyo wixii ay maalgashanayaan (Investment). 

Hadaba inaga oo dhinacyo kala duwan ka istaagayna sida ashkhaasta, ganasatada iyo dawladuba u kala wajahaan qaraaca ama yaraanta (scarcity) waxaan hoos ku soo bandhigaynaa tusaale yaal ku saabsan:

1)Dhanka ashkhaasta (individual level): Markii aan ka eegno dhinaca fardiga (individual) wakhtigu wuxuu ka mid yahay khayraadka suququrka inagu ah (TIME is an example of scarcity resources). 

Wakhtiga aad ku bixinayso inaad shaqaysato si aad dakhli u samayso (income) iyo wakhtiga aad u qoondayso in aad qoyskaaga laqaadatidba aad bay u xadidanyihiin (scarce).

2) Dhanka Ganacsatada (Business level): Dhinaca ganacsiga (business) hadaan ka ka istaagno lacagta ayaa ah mid qarraac ah ama yar (MONEY is an example of scarcity resources).

Shilling ka aad ku bixinayso kirada iyo kharashaadka kale aad isticmaashay sida biyaha iyo korontada, lacagta aad maalgalinta ku samaynayso iwm ah aad bay u xadidanyihiin (scarce).

3) Dhanka Dawlada (Government level): Dhinaca Dawlada hadii aan ka eegno dhulka ayaynu u soo qaadan karnaa suququr/yaraansho (LAND is an example of scarcity resources).

markii ay noqoto dhulka aan deegaan aan loo adeegsankarin iyo kii kale dawlada hoose ayaa go’aamisa, sidaa daraadeed markii aynoqoto in ay bulshada u dajiso qorshayaal noocaas oo kale ah sidii loo kala qoondayn lahaa dawladu waxay wajahdaa suququr dhanka dhulalka ah.

Maxaa inaguyar(scarce) maxaanse inagu yarayn marka dhanka dhaqaalaha laga eego?

Kuwaan hoos ku qorani waa waxyaabaha sida dabiiciga ah inoogu yar iyo kuwa aan qaniga ku nahay guud ahaan dunida oo dhan.

1)Waxyaabaha suququrka ama inagu yar (Scarce): dahabka iyo dhaymanka, geela, Lo’da iyo adhiga, guryaha, shaqada, biyaha nadiifta ah, macalimiinta, duuliyayaasha, dhakhaatiirta, baabuurta, adeegyada caafimaadka, ciidanka iwm; ayaa noqon kara waxyaabaha dunida oo dhan ay suququrkiisa ama yaraanshihiisa la daalaadhacayaan.

2)Waxyaabaha aan inagu yarayn (Not scarce): aqoon cusub in la daah qaado, dambiyada, cudurada, Jacaylka, biyaha dhanaan,  saaxiibtinimada, nacaybka iwm; ma aha wax inagu yar. 

Sidaas daraadeed, maxaa badeeco ka dhiga mid suququr ah (scarce)? Tusaale, maxaa dheemanka qaali kadhigay. Maxaase biyaha raqiiska ka dhigay:

  1. Qofwalba uma baahna dheemanka(diamonds), saas oo aytahay hadana wali dheemanku aad buu u qiimo badanyahay,( nobody desires diamonds, however they are extremely valuable),
  2. Hal kof walba uu u baahanyahay biyo (water), hadana wali aad bay raqiis u yihiin (Everybody needs water, yet they are very cheap).

Xaqiiqda halkaan ku duugan baa waxay tahay qiimo badnida dhaqaale (Economic value) ee  badeecadaha waxaa laga soo xigaa/dhiraan dhiriyaa helitaankooda (economic value is derived from scarcity). Tusaale:

  • Marwalba oo ay yartahay badeecada helitaankeedu, waa marwalba oo ay qiimeheedu siyaado (the scarcer an item, the more valuable it is).
  • Marwalba oo ay yartahay badeecadda in lawaayo, waa marwalba oo ay qiimeheedu hoos u dhaco (the less scarce an item, the less value it has in society). 

Hadalka oo dhan aragtida yaaraandhuhu (scarcity) waa: si aad badeeco ama adeeg aad u baahantahay u heshid, waa in aad badeeco kale ka taasushid. COUNTINUE………..


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